This is the second book in the “Progress in Epileptic Disorders” series, edited in collaboration with the journal “Epileptic Disorders” and John Libbey Eurotext publications.
The present book is the fruit of a workshop, designed as a discussion forum, with the participation of experts from all over the world, to extensively review clinical, neurophysiological and fundamental research available data in order to generate new axes for research, clinical practice and care. The first section traces back to the definitions and concepts underlying the terms “generalized seizures and epilepsies”.
Section II reviews human and animal data suggesting that the brainstem network plays an important role for tonic seizures generation. The third and fourth sections analyze recent knowledge on cortico-thalamic and basal ganglia networks in absence and myoclonic seizures, both in animal models and in humans. The fifth section compares the phenomenology of “Primary versus Secondary Tonico-clonic seizures”, including animal data, clinical expression in humans and genetics. Section VI goes back to the discussion “Cortical” versus “Centrencephalic” theories. The last two chapters thoroughly review the clinical applications of current knowledge, in terms of pharmacological approach and clinical care.
I: Generalized seizures and epilepsies: a bilateral “focal” dysfunction?
What is a generalized seizure? What is a generalized epilepsy?
II: Tonic seizures and brainstem systems
From brainstem to forebrain in generalized animal models of seizures and epilepsies
Systems and networks in tonic seizures and epilepsies in humans; Comments from participants
III: Absence seizures and cortico-thalamic systems
Propagation and dynamic processing of cortical paroxysms in the basal ganglia networks during absence seizures; Cortical control of absence seizures: focal initiation, spreading and modulation; Systems and networks in absence seizures and epilepsies in humans
Spike-wave seizures in corticothalamic systems
IV: Myoclonic seizures and the frontal lobe
Animal models of myoclonic seizures and epilepsies; Systems and networks in myoclonic seizures and epilepsies; Connections between primary reading epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy?
V: Primary versus Secondary Tonic-clonic seizures
Behavior, neural circuits and plasticity in acute and chronic animal models of generalized tonic-clonic seizures; The semiology and pathophysiology of the secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures; Tonic-clonic and clonic-tonic-clonic seizures in human primary generalized epilepsies; Generalized Seizures: From clinical phenomenology to underlying systems and networks
VI: The “cortical” and “centrencephalic” theories revisited
Cortical trigger in generalized seizures
VII: Phenomenology versus networks: clinical consequences
Why can some antiepileptic drugs control certain types of seizures and aggravate others?
VIII: Concluding remarks
Can we replace the terms “focal” and “generalized”?